Jichen Du, Jiangbo Cui, Jing Yang, Peifu Wang, Lvming Zhang, Bin Luo, Bailin Han
Department of Neurology, Aerospace Center Hospital, Beijing, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e928108
Available online: 2020-11-16
Most reported neurological symptoms that happen after exposure to microgravity could be originated from alterations in cerebral hemodynamics. The complicated mechanisms involved in the process of hemodynamics and the disparate experimental protocols designed to study the process may have contributed to the discrepancies in results between studies and the lack of consensus among researchers. This literature review examines spaceflight and ground-based studies of cerebral hemodynamics and aims to summarize the underlying physiological mechanisms that are altered in cerebral hemodynamics during microgravity. We reviewed studies that were published before July 2020 and sought to provide a comprehensive summary of the physiological or pathological theories of hemodynamics and to arrive at firm conclusions from incongruous results that were reported in those related articles.
We give plausible explanations of inconsistent results on factors including intracranial pressure, cerebral blood flow, and cerebrovascular autoregulation. Although there are no definitive data to confirm how cerebral hemodynamics changes during microgravity, every discrepancy in results was interpreted by existing theories, which were derived from physiological and pathological processes. We conclude that microgravity-induced alterations of hemodynamics at the brain level are multifaceted. Factors including duration, partial pressures of carbon dioxide, and individual adaptability contribute to this process and are unpredictable. With a growing understanding of this hemodynamics model, additional factors will likely be considered. Aiming for a full understanding of the physiological and/or pathological changes of hemodynamics will enable researchers to investigate its cellular and molecular mechanisms in future studies, which are desperately needed.
Keywords: cerebral hemodynamics, Intracranial Pressure, Neurology