Piotr Sawicki, Marek Tałałaj, Katarzyna Życińska, Wojciech S. Zgliczyński, Waldemar Wierzba
Department of Rheumatology, Systemic Connective Tissue Diseases and Rare Diseases, Central Clinical Hospital MSWiA in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e930839
Available online: 2021-04-16
The application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examinations in the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine, hip, and forearm is the basic diagnostic method for recognition of osteoporosis. The constant development of DXA technique is due to the aging of societies and the increasing importance of osteoporosis as a public health problem. In order to assess the degree of bone demineralization in patients with hyperparathyroidism, forearm DXA examination is recommended. The vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) of the thoracic and lumbar spine, performed by a highly-skilled technician, is an interesting alternative to the X-ray examination. The DXA total body examination can be useful in the evaluation of fat redistribution among patients after bariatric surgery, in patients infected with HIV and receiving antiretroviral therapy, and in patients with metabolic diseases and suspected to have sarcopenia. The assessment of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and detection of abdominal aortic calcifications may be useful in the prediction of cardiovascular events. The positive effect of anti-resorptive therapy may affect some parameters of DXA hip structure analysis (HSA). Long-term anti-resorptive therapy, especially with the use of bisphosphonates, may result in changes in the DXA image, which may herald atypical femur fractures (AFF). Reduction of the periprosthetic BMD in the DXA measurements can be used to estimate the likelihood of loosening the prosthesis and periprosthetic fractures. The present review aims to present current applications and selected technical details of DXA.
Keywords: Absorptiometry, Photon, Bone Density, Diagnostic Imaging, Osteoporosis