A Composite Tissue Engineered Bone Material Consisting of Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 (BMP9) Gene Lentiviral Vector, and P3HB4HB Thermogel (BMSCs-LV-BMP9-P3HB4HB) Repairs Calvarial Skull Defects in Rats by Expression of Osteogenic Factors
Cheng Zhou, Chuan Ye, Chen Zhao, Junyi Liao, Yuwan Li, Hong Chen, Wei Huang
Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e924666
Available online: 2020-07-10
Bone tissue engineering has been proven to be an appropriate approach for treating bone defects. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of a composite tissue engineered bone material consisting of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP9) gene lentiviral vector, and P3HB4HB thermogel (BMSCs-LV-BMP9-P3HB4HB) on calvarial skull defects in rats.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: LV-BMP9 viral vector was structured and infected to BMSCs-P3HB4HB composite scaffold, which was named as BMSCs-P3HB4HB composite bone repair material. Adipogenic differentiation was determined by oil-red O (ORO) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining. Osteogenic differentiation was measured using Alizarin red staining. Cell viability was examined using Cell-Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Protein expression of osteogenic factors, including BMP9, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and osterix (OSX), was detected with Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry. mRNA of these osteogenic factors was examined by RT-PCR. Histological changes were examined with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson’s trichrome staining. Bone repair was measured using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).
RESULTS: BMSCs and LV-BMP9-infected BMSCs demonstrated adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. BMSCs-P3HB4HB scaffold demonstrated good cell-tissue compatibility. BMSCs-LV-BMP9-P3HB4HB exhibited significantly higher osteogenic ability and cell viability of BMSCs compared to BMSCs-LV-P3HB4HB (p<0.05). BMSCs-LV-BMP9-P3HB4HB significantly promoted osteogenic factors (RUNX2, OCN, OPN, and OSX) expression compared to the BMSCs-LV-P3HB4HB group (p<0.05) in both BMSCs and in calvarial defect rats. BMSCs-LV-BMP9-P3HB4HB demonstrated stronger repair ability. BMSCs-LV-BMP9-P3HB4HB significantly alleviated pathological injury and increased collagen fiber production compared to the BMSCs-LV-P3HB4HB group (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: BMSCs-LV-BMP9-P3HB4HB composite bone repair material can effectively repair injured skull tissues of calvarial defect rats through triggering osteogenic factors expression. The present generated bone repair material may have applications in tissue engineering in regeneration of bone defects.
Keywords: adult stem cells, Endothelial Growth Factors, Tissue Engineering