An Observational Cohort Study of the 2-Month Use of Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients with Cerebral Hemorrhage
Xiao Bi, Qi Zhang, Feng Zhuang, Wei Lu, Yingdeng Wang, Feng Ding
Division of Nephrology and Critical Care Nephrology Unit, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e930513
Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is a recommended anticoagulation alternative for patients at high risk of bleeding while undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Previous reports implied the risk of citrate application on bone metabolism. It is unclear whether long-term use of RCA is safe for maintenance hemodialysis patients in terms of bone metabolism.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven patients with cerebral hemorrhage were included in the study. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. Spent dialysate samples were collected during each mid-week dialysis session, using the partial dialysate collection method. All patients were treated with RCA for 4 to 8 weeks, according to their clinical condition. We assessed bone metabolism-associated parameters, bone turnover markers, and magnesium loss at each dialysis session.
RESULTS: Serum magnesium levels were 1.24±0.13 mmol/L at baseline and significantly decreased to 1.16±0.14 mmol/L after 4 weeks of RCA treatment (P=0.025). Most patients had negative magnesium balance during citrate hemodialysis. Serum total calcium levels did not change significantly after treatment. One bone marker, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), significantly decreased from 146.07±130.12 mmol/L to 92.42±79.01 mmol/L after citrate treatment (P=0.018). No significant changes were detected in other bone turnover markers.
CONCLUSIONS: Relatively long-term RCA treatment may decrease serum magnesium levels due to negative magnesium balance. Bone formation marker PINP seemed to decrease after treatment, while other bone turnover markers did not change significantly. Further investigation is needed to verify the effect of RCA on bone remodeling.
Keywords: Anticoagulants, Magnesium Deficiency, Renal Dialysis