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Katarzyna Sklinda, Bartosz Mruk, Jerzy Walecki
(Department of Radiology, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland)
Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e920252
Clinically, active surveillance involves continuous monitoring of patients who may be at risk for disease. Patients with low-grade and early-stage prostate cancer may benefit from active surveillance, rather than undergoing surgical and medical treatments that are associated with side effects. In these cases, the role of active surveillance is to ensure that there is no progression of the disease. However, active surveillance may be associated with a risk of under-diagnosis. Previously, the assignment of risk categories and patient monitoring were based on digital rectal examination, transrectal prostate biopsy, and monitoring of serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland has an estimated negative predictive value of 95% for the detection of prostate cancer, which makes this an effective imaging method for targeting biopsies and for monitoring patients over time. Also, multiparametric MRI-guided biopsy at the initial stage of the risk stratification for patients who are newly diagnosed with prostate cancer may reduce the number of underdiagnosed patients, improve long-term patient prognosis, and reduce the number of patients who are overtreated, which may reduce healthcare costs and reduce treatment morbidity. For these reasons, multiparametric MRI has become an accepted monitoring tool in patients who are enrolled in active surveillance programs. This review aims to present the current status of the use of multiparametric MRI in active surveillance of prostate cancer and to discuss future perspectives, supported by recent literature.