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Diagnostic Value of Multi-Slice Spiral Computed Tomography for Bronchial Dysplasia in Premature Infants

Weiwei Zhang, Shaohua Wang

(Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:7375-7381

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.911749

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for bronchial dysplasia in premature infants.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 248 premature infants who were highly suspected to have bronchial dysplasia and were admitted to our hospital from 2015 onwards was conducted. We observed bronchus morphologies, sizes, and tissue characteristics using fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) as the criterion standard for diagnosis. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic compliance of MSCT in the diagnosis of bronchial dysplasia.
RESULTS: Thoracic computed tomography mainly revealed capsular bubbles. The translucency of the 2 lungs was reduced, and extensive and local ground-glass changes were observed. Imaging findings mostly included strip or honeycomb-like shadows. Pleural thickening and pleural effusion were rare. MSCT was able to establish a diagnosis in 92 cases (37.10%) of bronchopulmonary cysts, 69 cases (27.82%) of congenital pulmonary emphysema, 31 cases (12.50%) of bronchial atresia, 1 case (0.40%) of congenital cystadenoma malformation, and 3 cases (1.21%) of giant tracheal bronchitis. Another 52 children (20.97%) were found to have conventional pulmonary inflammation. The sensitivity of MSCT in the diagnosis of bronchial dysplasia was 88.21%, the specificity was 75.00%, and the diagnostic compliance was 86.29%. There was a significant difference between the MSCT and FB findings in the diagnosis of bronchial hypoplasia (P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: MSCT has great utility in the diagnosis of bronchial dysplasia in premature infants and may become an excellent method for diagnosing bronchial dysplasia in the future.

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