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Metformin Increases Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction via the AMPK-MTOR/PGC-1α Signaling Pathway in Rats with Acute Myocardial Infarction

Jinghai Hua, Zhanghua Liu, Zuheng Liu, Dongqi An, Wenyan Lai, Qiong Zhan, Qingchun Zeng, Hao Ren, Dingli Xu

(State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:6989-7000

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.910930

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rupture often occurs after acute myocardial infarction due to complex and unclear pathogenesis. This study investigated whether metformin increases the incidence of cardiac rupture after myocardial infarction through the AMPK-MTOR/PGC-1α signaling pathway.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: An acute myocardial infarction (MI) mouse model was established. A series of experiments involving RT-qPCR, Western blot, TUNEL staining, and Masson staining were performed in this study.
RESULTS: Myocardial infarction occurred, resulting in the cardiac rupture, and the expression level of PGC-1α increased in the cardiac myocardium. Meanwhile, the proportion of myocardial NT-PGC-1α/PGC-1α decreased. The expression level of myocardial PGC-1α in MI mice with cardiac rupture after MI was significantly higher than that in the mice without cardiac rupture, and the ratio of myocardial NT-PGC-1α/PGC-1α was low. In addition, increasing the dose of metformin significantly increased the incidence of cardiac rupture after myocardial infarction in MI mice. High-dose metformin caused cardiac rupture in MI mice. Moreover, high-dose metformin (Met 2.0 nM) reduces the proportion of NT-PGC-1α/PGC-1α in primary cardiomyocytes of SD mice (SD-NRVCs [Neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes]), and its effect was inhibited by Compound C (AMPK inhibitor). Further, after 3 days of treatment with high-dose metformin in MI mice, myocardial fibrin synthesis decreased and fibrosis was significantly inhibited. Meanwhile, cardiomyocyte apoptosis increased significantly. With the increase in metformin concentration, the expression level of myocardial LC3b gradually increased in MI mice, suggesting that metformin enhances the autophagy of cardiomyocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that metformin increases cardiac rupture after myocardial infarction through the AMPK-MTOR/PGC-1α signaling pathway.

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