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Ex Vivo Evaluation of Hip Fracture Risk by Proximal Femur Geometry and Bone Mineral Density in Elderly Chinese Women

Xiao-jiang Yang, Hong-xun Sang, Bo Bai, Xiang-yu Ma, Chao Xu, Wei Lei, Yang Zhang

(Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Xijing Hospital, The Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:7438-7443

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.910876

BACKGROUND: The incidence of hip fracture is steadily increasing. We aimed to establish a creative approach to precisely estimate the risk of hip fracture by exploring the relationship between hip fracture and bone mineral density (BMD)/femur geometry.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen samples of cadaveric female proximal femora were randomly selected. Experiments were performed experimental measurement of the femoral neck BMD and geometric parameters (including neck length, neck diameter, head diameter, and neck-shaft angle). In addition, the experimental measurements contain the failure load, which represents the mechanical strength of the femoral neck, and we calculated the correlation coefficient among BMD, geometric parameters, and failure load.
RESULTS: Significant correlations were discovered between femoral mechanical properties and femoral neck BMD (r=0.792, r²=0.628, P<0.001), trochanteric BMD (r=0.749, r²=0.560, P=0.001), and head diameter (r=0.706, r²=0.499, P=0.002). Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that the best predictor of hip fracture was the combination of femoral neck BMD, head diameter, and neck diameter (r²=0.844, P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed that, compared with BMD alone, the combination of BMD and geometric parameters of proximal femur is a better estimation of hip fracture. The geometry of the proximal femur played an important role in assessing the biomechanical strength of femur. This method greatly assists in predicting the risk of hip fracture in clinical trials and will assist studies on why the incidence of hip fracture varies among races.

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