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Caihua Sun, Zhiyun Chen, Hui Wang, Ke Ding
(Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China (mainland))
Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:6564-6572
Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Tetrahydropalmatine (THP) can exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-arrhythmic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The mechanism of THP on the hyperlipidemia remains unknown; therefore, the present study explored the role of THP in hyperlipidemia.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We established an animal model of hyperlipidemia by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Blood samples were obtained for determination of serum cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and CYP7A1 expression. Histology was performed and inflammation was detected in the liver using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The mRNA and protein levels of TLR4 and TRAF-6 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blot, respectively.
RESULTS: THP suppressed hepatic lipid accumulation and reduced serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c in HFD-fed golden hamsters. THP increased cholesterol 7 a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression and prevented inflammation by the limited reduction in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expressions in serum and liver. THP slightly increased the ratio of the body/liver weight. THP inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TNF-receptor associated factor-6 (TRAF-6).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that THP attenuates hyperlipidemia by multiple effects, including hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, THP also suppressed the expressions of TLR4 and TRAF-6 in golden hamsters.