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Potassium Citrate is Better in Reducing Salt and Increasing Urine pH than Oral Intake of Lemonade: A Cross-Over Study

Jing Shen, Xicheng Zhang

(Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hangzhou Amcare Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:1924-1929

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.909319

BACKGROUND: Urine solute supersaturation leads to the formation of urinary tract caliceal stones. Many parameters can be involved in the supersaturation of solutes in urine, such as pH. Uric acid has pKa ≤5.5, and it is solubilized at pH ≥5.5. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of potassium citrate and lemonade supplementation in pediatric patients with urolithiasis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 126 children who had lower ureteral stones calculi and fragments with severe colic pain participated in this cross-over study. Children drank lemonade (2 mEq/kg/day citrate) in 3 divided doses for 5 days. After a 15-day washout period, children drank 2 mEq/kg/day of potassium citrate in 3 divided doses for 5 days. On the sixth of the day of individual intervention, a 24-h urine sample was collected and evaluated for pH, urine volume, citrate level, uric acid level, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Urinary parameters for 1-day urine collection measurements after each supplementation were compared with baseline using the Mann-Whitney test following Tukey post hoc test at 95% confidence level.
RESULTS: Potassium citrate supplementation resulted in reduction of sodium concentration (p=0.0337; q=3.76) and increased pH of urine (p=0.0118; q=4.389). However, urine volume, citrate level, and uric acid level, as well as elemental magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium, remained unchanged after 5 days of supplementation with potassium citrate or lemonade.
CONCLUSIONS: Potassium citrate supplementation is an effective therapy for preventing pediatric urolithiasis, with acceptable adverse effects.

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