Scimago Lab
powered by Scopus
call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon-Fri 10 am - 2 pm EST


Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 1643-3750

Get your full text copy in PDF

Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)/Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion by NF-κB Activation

Wei Wang, Jiye Wang

(Department of Urology Surgery, Tiantai People’s Hospital, Taizhou, Zhejiang, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR5588-5597

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.906857

BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling has been implicated in invasion, metastasis, and survival of various cancers. Activation of TLR4 can promote cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). However, little is known about the effects of TLR4/COX-2 in prostate cancer (PCa).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In our study, TLR4 and COX-2 expressions were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in PCa tissues (n=34). Cell proliferation was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) assays. The migration and invasion abilities were detected by wound healing and Transwell assays. qRT-PCR and western blot assays were performed to detect TLR4, COX-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, epithelial-cadherin (E-cadherin), vimentin, NF-κB (p65), and p-p65 expressions.
RESULTS: The results revealed that TLR4 and COX-2 were upregulated in PCa tissues; Silencing of TLR4 or COX-2 inhibited PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and TLR4 siRNAs combined with COX-2 siRNAs synergistically suppressed PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Silencing of TLR4 or COX-2 also downregulated MMP-2, MMP-9, and E-cadherin expressions, and upregulated TIMP-1 and vimentin expressions. In addition, silencing of TLR4 or COX-2 inhibited p65 phosphorylation and had a synergistic effect.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that TLR4/COX-2 inhibits PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by regulating NF-κB.

This paper has been published under Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) allowing to download articles and share them with others as long as they credit the authors and the publisher, but without permission to change them in any way or use them commercially.
I agree