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eISSN: 1643-3750

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Triple Negative Breast Cancer Depends on Sphingosine Kinase 1 (SphK1)/Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P)/Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 3 (S1PR3)/Notch Signaling for Metastasis

Shushu Wang, Yueyang Liang, Wenxiao Chang, Baoquan Hu, Yi Zhang

(Breast Disease Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR1912-1923

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.905833


BACKGROUND: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a more aggressive recurrence. Previous reports have demonstrated that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) is a crucial regulator of breast cancer progression. However, the correlation of SphK1 with clinical prognosis has been poorly investigated. Thus, we aimed to elaborate the role of SphK1 in TNBC metastasis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We first determined the level of SphK1 in breast cancer tissue samples and breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the expression of HER2 and phosphor-SphK1 (pSphK1) in human breast cancer tissue samples was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Associations between SphK1 and clinical parameters of tumors were analyzed. The activity of SphK1 was measured by fluorescence analysis. Extracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was detected using an ELISA kit. Associations between SphK1 and metastasis potential were analyzed by Transwell assay.
RESULTS: Levels of SphK1 in TNBC patients were significantly higher than levels in other patients with other breast tumors. The expression of SphK1 was positively correlated with poor overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), as well as poor response to 5-FU and doxorubicin. The depression of SphK1 thus could repress the Notch signaling pathway, reduce migration, and invasion of TNBC cells in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, silencing of SphK1 by Ad-SPHK1-siRNA or SphK1 inhibitor PF543 sensitized TNBCs to 5-FU and doxorubicin. Our results also indicated that SphK1 inhibition could effectively counteracts tumors metastasis via Notch signaling pathways, indicating a potentially anti-tumor strategy in TNBC.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that elevated levels of pSphK1 were positive correlation with high expression of S1P, which in turn promoted metastasis of TNBC through S1P/S1PR3/Notch signaling pathway.

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