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eISSN: 1643-3750

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Long-Term Effects of Percutaneous Fenestration Following the Fontan Procedure in Adult Patients with Congenital Univentricular Heart

Monika Smaś-Suska, Beata Róg, Piotr Weryński, Wojciech Płazak, Monika Komar, Maria Olszowska, Piotr Podolec, Lidia Tomkiewicz-Pająk

(Departament of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland)

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: CLR3506-3513

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.905786


BACKGROUND: The Fontan procedure, performed for univentricular heart, may also include the technique of percutaneous fenestration to create a small atrial septal defect (ASD) and a right-to-left shunt. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of fenestration in adult patients who had a Fontan procedure for univentricular heart.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fontan surgery was performed in 39 patients, including 19 (49%) patients with fenestration (Group I), and 20 (51%) patients without the fenestration procedure (Group II). Laboratory tests in both groups included echocardiography, plethysmography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and 24-hour Holter monitoring.
RESULTS: Compared with patients in Group I, patients in Group II had a significantly increased level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (p=0.04), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p=0.01) and a significant increase in frequency of atrial fibrillation (p=0.04). Patients in Group I had a significantly increased systemic ventricular ejection fraction (SVEF) (p=0.05) and increased heart rate (HR) (p=0.006), heart rate reserve (HRR) (p=0.02), ventilatory equivalent (VE) (p=0.01), and VO2 peak (p=0.05) on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Renal, hematologic, and ventilatory parameters, and incidence of thromboembolism showed no significant differences between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term follow-up of patients who underwent Fontan procedures with percutaneous fenestration had improved single ventricular function, lower NT-proBNP levels, improved exercise capacity, and reduced ALP levels. These findings indicate that percutaneous fenestration closure should be considered for adult patients who have undergone Fontan procedure for univentricular heart.

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