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Polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for breast augmentation: Another injectable failure

Zhenxiang Wang, Shirong Li, Lingli Wang, Shu Zhang, Yan Jiang, Jinping Chen, Donglin Luo

Med Sci Monit 2012; 18(6): CR399-408

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.882910

Background:    Increasing complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) augmentation mammoplasty, such as chronic persistent infection, have recently caught the attention of both the medical field and the general public.
    Material/Methods:    A total of 96 patients with severe chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammoplasty were treated in the present study including 63 cases with infection confined to the breast and 33 with systemic infection. Endoscopy and surgery were performed to completely remove the materials and clear the infected tissues followed by drug-irrigation and vacuum-assisted closure for several days.
    Results:    In patients with severe infection there were large amounts of PAAG, fibers and infiltration of numerous neutrophils and macrophages. The infection-inducing materials were extensively dispersed in the mammary and subcutaneous tissues, pectoral fascia and intermuscular space. In addition, there was scattered distribution of PAAG materials in the armpit, chest wall and abdominal wall, which were mixed with necrotic tissues and surrounded by lymphocytes, giant cells, macrophages and other inflammatory cells, forming chronic granulomatous and fibrous lesions. Infection was controlled following surgical intervention. No residual infectious foci or recurrent infections were noted among these patients. Although the severe infection did not result in mastectomy, patients had breast atrophy and various degrees of deformation.
    Conclusions:    Chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammaplasty usually causes systemic infection and other devastating adverse reactions. This study confirms PAAG augmentation mammaplasty is another failed attempt. More attention should be paid to the injection of large doses of liquid filler.

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