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eISSN: 1643-3750

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Pain during external dacryocystorhinostomy with local anesthesia

Miroslav M. Knezevic, Milenko Z. Stojkovic, Gordana P. Vlajkovic, Milos B. Jovanovic, Dejan M. Rasic

Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(6): CR341-346

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.881807


Background:    External dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is often performed under local anesthesia (LA) without adequate knowledge of the pain experienced by the patient.
    Material/Methods:    We subdivided our surgical technique into stages easily understood by the patients (introducing cotton tipped applicators, performing parabulbar injection, creating the incision, bone cracking (opening the ostium), manipulating the nose, intubating, closing the wound, and packing with gauze). A total of 50 patients ranging in age from 31 to 83 years of age (63.64±9.64) underwent external DCR. Each patient was asked 30 minutes after surgery to indicate the intensity of pain experienced at each stage of the surgery and during intramuscular (IM) injection of an antibiotic using a visual analog scale (VAS).
    Results:    Analysis of the VAS-based pain scores indicated 3 statistically equal occurrences of pain coinciding with the opening of the ostium, and receiving both parabulbar anesthetic and IM antibiotic injections.
    Conclusions:    The level of pain experienced during the most unpleasant stage of external DCR (ostium opening) was similar to the pain experienced from an IM injection. Patients can be informed that pain during external DCR with local anesthesia is comparable to receiving an IM gluteal injection.

This paper has been published under Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) allowing to download articles and share them with others as long as they credit the authors and the publisher, but without permission to change them in any way or use them commercially.
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