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Conservative treatment of an aortoesophagial fistula after endovascular stent grafting for a thoracic aortic aneurysm

Kazuhiro Kasai, Akira Ushio, Yoko Tamura, Kei Sawara, Yukiho Kasai, Kanta Oikawa, Masaki Endo, Yasuhiro Takikawa, Kazuyuki Suzuki

Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(4): CS39-42

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.881702

Background:    Aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) is an uncommon condition that presents a problem in therapy because of the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with its surgical management and the uniformly fatal outcome of medical treatment. In this article we describe a case of secondary AEF after endoluminal stent grafting of the thoracic aorta, which was observed by only conservative management and followed up for 14 months with no signs of recurrent hemorrhage or chronic mediastinitis.
    Case Report:    A 54-year old man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was admitted to our hospital because of tarry stool. He had a history of traumatic aneurysm, and undergone segmental replacement with a stent graft three years ago. After admission, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography identified AEF. He was treated conservatively, because his stage of HCC was advanced. Oral intake was prohibited, and the patient received proton pump inhibitors, intravenous hyperalimentation and antibiotics. Afterwards, no signs of hemorrhage were observed. Although oral intake was resumed after that, another bleeding event or development of mediastinitis was not observed. Subsequently, He was received chemotherapy for advanced HCC, and we observed downstaging of his advanced HCC.
    Conclusions:    Although we observed 14 months survival in our case under conservative management of secondary AEF, it seems that the treatment of secondary AEF should do the operative management.

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