Scimago Lab
powered by Scopus
call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon-Fri 10 am - 2 pm EST


Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 1643-3750

Get your full text copy in PDF

Hepatic encephalopathy: An updated approach from pathogenesis to treatment

Giannakis T. Toris, Christos N. Bikis, Gerasimos S. Tsourouflis, Stamatios E. Theocharis

Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(2): RA53-63

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.881387

One of the most serious complications of chronic or fulminant liver failure is hepatic encephalopathy (HE), associated most commonly with cirrhosis. In the presence of chronic liver disease, HE is a sign of decompensation, while in fulminant liver failure its development represents a worrying sign and usually indicates that transplantation will be required. Despite the significance of HE in the course of liver disease, the progress in development of new therapeutic options has been unremarkable over the last 20 years. An up-to-date review regarding HE, including both research and review articles. HE is a serious and progressive, but potentially reversible, disorder with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities and motor disturbances that ranges from mild alteration of cognitive and motor function to coma and death. Although a clear pathogenesis is yet to be determined, elevated ammonia in serum and the central nervous system is the mainstay for pathogenesis and treatment of HE. Management includes early diagnosis and prompt treatment of precipitating factors. Clinical trials and extensive clinical experience have established the efficacy of diverse substances in HE treatment. Novel therapies with clinical promise include: L-ornithine L-aspartate, sodium benzoate, phenylacetate, AST-120, and the molecular adsorbent recirculating system. Eventually, liver transplantation is often the most successful long-term therapy for HE.

This paper has been published under Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) allowing to download articles and share them with others as long as they credit the authors and the publisher, but without permission to change them in any way or use them commercially.
I agree