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Mithilesh K Misra, Maryam Sarwat, Pushpa Bhakuni, Renu Tuteja, Narendra Tuteja
Med Sci Monit 2009; 15(10): RA209-219
Oxidative stress is a condition in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) or free radicals, namely O2*(-), H2O2, and *OH, are generated extra- or intracellularly and exert toxic effects on cells. The heart is one of the major organs affected by ROS. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress is a common denominator in many aspects of cardiovascular diseases. During myocardial oxidative stress, the generation of ROS is enhanced and the defense mechanisms of myocytes are altered. The sources of ROS in cardiac myocytes could be mitochondrial electron transport chain, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase and the auto-oxidation of various substances, particularly catecholamines. In acute myocardial infarction (AMI), two distinct types of damage occur to the heart: ischemic injury and reperfusion injury, which lead to mitochondrial dysfunction in heart cells. During ischemia and reperfusion, ROS can be produced by both endothelial cells and circulating phagocytes. Ischemia also causes alterations in the defense mechanisms against ROS. Some proteins, including heat-shock proteins, are overexpressed in conditions of ischemia/reperfusion and can protect from cardiac injury. This article outlines the current understanding of oxidative stress and ROS generation and their role in cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic myocardial syndromes. The following aspects are covered: oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and pathophysiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis, precipitation of MI, sources of ROS in cardiac myocytes, effects of ROS in the heart, and ischemia and reperfusion injuries and their mechanisms.