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Hiroaki Sato, Kentaro Kasai, Toshiko Tanaka, Toshiro Kita, Noriyuki Tanaka
Med Sci Monit 2008; 14(5): BR79-87
Hemorrhagic shock occasionally causes a fatal outcome following an outbreak of lung dysfunction, but the precise mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. Several studies have indicated that hemorrhagic shock causes a delayed vascular inflammatory decompensation and leads to inflammation-related organ dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta are known as major proinflammatory cytokines that play an important role in excessive autolytic inflammation, finally inducing organ dysfunctions. In this study, the role of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta on lung dysfunction following hemorrhagic shock was examined by using FR167653, a potent inhibitor of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta production that acts by suppressing p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).
Material and Method: Hemorrhagic shock was induced in anesthetized male rats by bleeding via a common carotid catheter for 20 minutes to 25% of total body blood volume without fluid resuscitation. Mean blood pressure, heart rate and arterial blood gas components were recorded up to 5 hours after the bleeding. The levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)-3 isozyme were measured in the serum of pulmonary venous blood. The lung tissue was excised for the assay of mRNA and for histopathological study.
Results: The expressions of mRNA for TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in the lung tissue and the concentrations of both cytokines in pulmonary serum increased after a hemorrhage. Inflammation-related injuries and function deterioration were observed in the lung following hemorrhagic shock. These hemorrhagic changes were inhibited by pretreatment with FR167653.
Conclusions: TNF-alpha and IL-1beta play a key role in the development of inflammation-related lung dysfunction following hemorrhagic shock. Our model should be useful to explain the pathogenesis of lung dysfunction following hemorrhagic shock.