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Joanna Renke, Maria Korzon, Stefan Popadiuk, Barbara Gumkowska-Kamińska, Małgorzata Szumera, Michał Woźniak
Med Sci Monit 2003; 9(4): 86-88
Mast cells have been recently found a very interesting point of investigation, due to their possible role in sustaining the chronic inflammation, being a histological hallmark for some pathologies and, through adenosine receptors, a receptoral handle for some new drugs. It is well known, that mast cells play a central role in immediate allergic reactions mediated by immunoglobulin E. It has been reported, that mast cells generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to stimulation with divergent physiologically relevant stimulants. The intensification of ROS production may be measured by the level of carbonyl groups, as a marker of protein peroxidation. However, the role of mast cells in other than asthma diseases with chronic inflammation needs further investigation. It was found out, that mast cells distribution in colonic mucosa may serve as a help in differentiation between inflammatory bowel disease and collagenous colitis. Moreover, its accumulation in focal active gastritis was confirmed in patients with Crohn’s disease. Though, an important role in regulation of inflammatory process is reserved for adenosine receptors present on mastocytes. The activation of mast cells through the adenosine receptor is connected with Il-8 release, which stimulate the migration of leukocytes and oxidation reactions. The antiasthmatic drug, enprofylline, is the first known selective, though not potent A 2B receptor anthagonist that may has its application in asthma. The detection of mast cells in tissues should not be limited only to the simple histologic examination, because it cannot adequately reflect their function and state of activation.