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08 December 2021 : Review article  

[In Press] A Review of Emerging Biomarkers for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Xuqiang Liao1AE, Gao Li1B, Renzhong Cai1AF, Ru Chen1AG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935348

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935348  

Available online: 2021-12-08, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule

Abstract

ABSTRACT
In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) therapy has made a tremendous improvement in the treatment of malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract, especially for those with metastatic or recurrent lesions. However, while some patients benefit from ICI, others do not. In fact, predictive biomarkers can play a crucial role in screening patients who may benefit from a selected or targeted treatment, including immunotherapies such as programmed death-1/programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors. A variety of techniques can be used to detect and quantify tumor biomarkers, each of which has a specific clinical application scenario and limitations. Cancer biomarkers in the gastrointestinal system involve an extremely complex network that requires careful interpretation and analysis. Different prognostic or predictive biomarkers are playing important roles in various tumor types, stages, and pathology/molecular subgroups, sometimes overlapping. Expression levels of biomarkers vary between different tumor types and even between the different lesions in the same tumor, depending on the heterogeneity of the patient, the tumor types, and the techniques of detection. The present systematic review comprehensively summarizes the potential biomarkers of immunotherapy, such as PD-1/PD-L1, total mutation burden (TMB), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in various gastrointestinal tumors, including tumors of the colon, stomach, esophagus, liver, and pancreas, to assist future application of immunotherapy and patient selection in clinical practice.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Immunotherapy

Editorial

01 January 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Current Status of Oral Antiviral Drug Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Non-Hospitalized Patients

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935952

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935952

SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19

25 January 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: The 2022 World Health Organization (WHO) Priority Recommendations and Response to the Omicron Va...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.936199  

25 January 2022 : Clinical Research  

Experience of the Polish Medical Air Rescue Service During the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Meas...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935474  

11 January 2022 : Clinical Research  

A Remote Questionnaire-Based Study to Compare Alcohol Use in 1030 Final-Year High School Students in Split-...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935567  

31 December 2021 : Clinical Research  

A Prospective Observational Study of 42 Patients with COVID-19 infection and a History of Hepatitis C Virus...

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935075

In Press

28 Jan 2022 : Database Analysis  

Evaluation of Structural Neural Connectivity Between the Primary Auditory Cortex and Cognition-Related Brai...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.936131  

27 Jan 2022 : Clinical Research  

Retrospective Study of the Association Between Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Acute Coronary...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935002  

25 Jan 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: The 2022 World Health Organization (WHO) Priority Recommendations and Response to the Omicron Va...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.936199  

25 Jan 2022 : Clinical Research  

Experience of the Polish Medical Air Rescue Service During the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Meas...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935474  

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750