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13 January 2022 : Clinical Research  

[In Press] Effect of Cerebral Microbleeds on Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in Parkinson Disease

Qixiong Qin1ABCDEF, Hengming Wan2C, Danlei Wang1B, Jingyi Li1B, Qingmei Yang1B, Jingwei Zhao1B, Zheng Xue1ADFG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935026

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935026  

Available online: 2022-01-13, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule

Abstract

BACKGROUND
This study aimed to investigate the risk factors and patterns of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in Parkinson disease (PD) and the impact of CMBs on cognitive function and quality of life (QoL).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Patients with PD that underwent susceptibility-weighted imaging were recruited and divided into CMB-free, lobar-CMB, deep-CMB, and mixed-CMB groups according to CMB location. Motor function (MDS-UPDRS III), cognitive abilities (MoCA, MMSE), and QoL (PDQ-39) were compared among groups. The risk factors for CMBs in patients with PD and the association between CMBs and cognition and QoL were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models and linear regression models.
RESULTS
Among the 209 patients with PD, 42 (20.1%) had CMBs. Lobar, deep, and mixed CMBs were observed in 15 (35.7%), 17 (40.5%), and 10 (23.8%) patients, respectively. A higher frequency of hypertension was independently associated with deep CMBs (odds ratio [OR]=4.379, 95% CI: 1.405-13.643, P=0.011). The deep-CMB and mixed-CMB groups had lower MoCA scores and MMSE scores than the CMB-free group, especially in domains of naming, attention, and orientation (P<0.05). Additionally, the presence of CMBs was associated with lower MMSE (R²=0.140, β=-0.301, P<0.001) and MoCA (R²=0.104, β=-0.289, P<0.001) and higher PDQ-39 (R²=0.052, β=0.227, P<0.05) scores, while the association between CMBs and PDQ-39 disappeared after adjustment of MMSE or MoCA as a covariate.
CONCLUSIONS
The results suggest that hypertension was associated with the occurrence of deep CMBs. Comorbidity with CMBs may impair cognitive function and indirectly reduce the QoL in patients with PD.

Keywords: Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases; Cognition; Parkinson Disease; Quality of Life

Editorial

01 January 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Current Status of Oral Antiviral Drug Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Non-Hospitalized Patients

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935952

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935952

SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750