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15 September 2021 : Clinical Research

[In Press] A Prospective Single-Center Study of the Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation at 2-Week Follow-Up in 17 Patients with Chronic Orofacial Pain Diagnosed by Infrared Thermography

Jitka Fricova1ABDEG, Mark├ęta Janatova2ABDF, Jakub Albrecht3BD, Tadeas Mares3BD, Richard Rokyta4ADEG, Vaclav Masopust5ADF, Martin Anders ORCID logo3ABCD

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.933017

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.933017  

Available online: 2021-09-15, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule


Infrared thermography is a diagnostic method used to monitor acute and chronic orofacial pain syndrome. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation. This prospective study from a single center aimed to investigate the effects of rTMS and used infrared thermography as a confirmatory test of orofacial pain.
We used infrared thermography to examine the incidence of inflammatory changes as orofacial pain triggers. During the analysis of rTMS effects on patients with orofacial pain, we compared the decrease in pain and the thermal difference in the study group (n=17) and in the research group (n=13).
In the control group (n=13), there were no statistically significant changes. Both groups showed a significant decrease in self-reported pain. Numerical pain rating scores were significantly lower after S2 stimulation than after S1/M1 (P=0.0071) or sham (P=0.0187) stimulation. The Brief Pain Inventory scores were also lower 3 to 5 days after S2 stimulation than at the pretreatment baseline (P=0.0127 for the intensity of pain and p=0.0074 for the interference of pain), and after S1/M1 (P=0.001 and P=0.0001) and sham (P=0.0491 and P=0.0359) stimulations.
The findings from this study support the role of infrared thermography for the diagnosis of chronic orofacial pain, and showed that on the first and fifth days of rTMS therapy in the study group there was a significant reduction of the thermography findings when compared with the control group without rTMS therapy.

Keywords: Facial Pain; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Thermography; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750