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10 January 2022 : Clinical Research  

Expression of Long Non-Coding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG5 in Patients with Refractory Diabetic Macular Edema and Its Regulatory Mechanism

Junwen He1ABEFG*, Zhang Rui ORCID logo1BC, Jing Gao2DE, Yanhong Chen2DEF, Yanzi Li1BCD, Tao Xu1BDF, Shan Wang2ABCE

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.932996

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e932996

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess use of lncRNAs as biomarkers in serum and aqueous humor of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Optical coherence tomography and fundus photography were used to analyze the retinal features of the patients. RT-qPCR was used to analyze the differential expression of lncRNA snhg5 in patients who have idiopathic macular hole (MH), DME, or refractory DME. The relationship between SNHG5 and the clinical characteristics of the patients was analyzed. The effect of SNHG5 on the hyperplasia and apoptosis of human retino-microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and its mechanism were analyzed in vitro.

RESULTS: Patients with idiopathic MH developed retinal nerve epithelium rupture and retinal fundus thickening, and patients with DME or refractory DME showed significant macular edema with hemorrhaging. The refractory DME patients improved after treatment but still showed significant macular edema and multiple laser scarring. SNHG5 expression was not only low in the atrial fluid and plasma in DME patients, but also lower in the refractory DME group compared to the idiopathic MH patients. SNHG5 expression in the aqueous humor and plasma was negatively correlated with disease duration, body mass index, and levels of fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, proteinuria, and glycosuria. In the in vitro experiments, SNHG5 expression was significantly downregulated in high glucose-induced HMECs. After SNHG5 overexpression, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and VEGF-A protein levels were distinctly downregulated.

CONCLUSIONS: SNHG5 correlates with the development of DME and is a potential target for therapy.

Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy, Long Non-Coding RNA SNHG5, Human, Retinal Neovascularization, Tomography, Optical Coherence

Comments

Figures

Figure 1. DME exacerbated the symptoms of macular edema. (A) OCT analyses of the retinal symptoms among patients in different groups; (B) fundus microscopy to analyze the differences in macular edema area and eyeball characteristics among patients in different groups. * P<0.05; OCT – optical coherence tomography; DME – diabetic macular edema; MH – macular hole. Photoshop software (version 21.2.4; Adobe, Inc; San Jose, USA) was used for creation of the figure.Figure 2. Expression differences in SNHG5 between the DME and refractory DME groups. RT-qPCR analysis of the differences in the expression of SNHG5 in the aqueous humor (A) and serum (B) of patients. * P<0.05; DME – diabetic macular edema; RT-qPCR – quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; AH – aqueous humor. Photoshop software (version 21.2.4; Adobe, Inc; San Jose, USA) was used for creation of the figure.Figure 3. Correlation between SNHG5 and clinical symptoms of patients. Differences in age (A), course of disease (B), and BMI (C) in each group of patients are shown. * P<0.05; BMI – body mass index. Photoshop software (version 21.2.4; Adobe, Inc; San Jose, USA) was used for creation of the figure.Figure 4. Correlation between SNHG5 and clinical symptoms of patients. The differences in FBG (A), HbA1C (B), and proteinuria (C) in each group of patients are shown. * P<0.05; FBG – fasting blood glucose; HbA1c – glycated hemoglobin. Photoshop software (version 21.2.4; Adobe, Inc; San Jose, USA) was used for creation of the figure.Figure 5. Correlation between SNHG5 and clinical symptoms of patients. The differences in the glycosuria (A), HB (B), and IOP (C) in each group of patients are shown. * P<0.05; HB – hemoglobin; IOP – intraocular pressure. Photoshop software (version 21.2.4; Adobe, Inc; San Jose, USA) was used for creation of the figure.Figure 6. SNHG5 reversed the effect of high glucose induction. RT-qPCR (A) analysis showed that the expression of SNHG5 was different in HRMECs induced by high glucose. (B) RT-qPCR analyzed the expression of SNHG5 after transfecting HRMECs with the plasmid overexpressing lncRNA SNHG5 and 3 si-SNHG5. After transfection of ov-SNHG5 or si-SNHG5, RT-qPCR (C) assays and CCK8 (D) assays were performed to analyze the changes in expression of SNHG5 and cell proliferation in each group. Transfection of ov-SNHG5 or si-SNHG5 was divided into the control group, HG group, HG+ov-NC group, HG+ov-SNHG5 group, HG+si-NC group, and HG+si-SNHG5 group. * P<0.05; CCK8 – Cell Counting Kit-8; HG – high glucose; NC – negative control; HRMECs – Human Retinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells. Photoshop software (version 21.2.4; Adobe, Inc; San Jose, USA) was used for creation of the figure.Figure 7. SNHG5 reverses the effect of high glucose induction. Angiogenesis (A, B) was analyzed in each group, and western blotting (C, D) was performed to analyze the changes in VEGF-A protein levels. Transfection of ov-SNHG5 or si-SNHG5 was divided into the control group, HG group, HG+ov-NC group, HG+ov-SNHG5 group, HG+si-NC group, and HG+si-SNHG5 group. * P<0.05; HG – high glucose; NC – negative control; VEGF – vascular endothelial growth factor; HRMECs – Human Retinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells. Photoshop software (version 21.2.4; Adobe, Inc; San Jose, USA) was used for creation of the figure.

Editorial

01 January 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Current Status of Oral Antiviral Drug Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Non-Hospitalized Patients

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935952

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935952

SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750