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15 September 2021 : Clinical Research

Development and Validation of a Prevalence Model for Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) Among Patients First Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)

Zhida Wang1ABCDEF, Jie Zhang2ABCDEF, Hui Xu3CDEF, Liming Chen1ADEFG*, Abigail Dove4ADEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.932725

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932725

Abstract

BACKGROUND: We designed this study to develop and validate a prevalence model for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) among people initially diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study recruited 930 patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with T2DM within the past year. Demographic information, medical history, and clinical biochemistry records were collected. Logistic regression was used to develop a regression model to distinguish LADA from T2DM. Predictors of LADA were identified in a subgroup of patients (n=632) by univariate logistic regression analysis. From this we developed a prediction model using multivariate logistic regression analysis and tested its sensitivity and specificity among the remaining patients (n=298).

RESULTS: Among 930 recruited patients, 880 had T2DM (96.4%) and 50 had LADA (5.4%). Compared to T2DM patients, LADA patients had fewer surviving b cells and reduced insulin production. We identified age, ketosis, history of tobacco smoking, 1-hour plasma glucose (1hPG-AUC), and 2-hour C-peptide (2hCP-AUC) as the main predictive factors for LADA (P<0.05). Based on this, we developed a multivariable logistic regression model: Y=-8.249-0.035(X1)+1.755(X2)+1.008(X3)+0.321(X4)-0.126(X5), where Y is diabetes status (0=T2DM, 1=LADA), X1 is age, X2 is ketosis (1=no, 2=yes), X3 is history of tobacco smoking (1=no, 2=yes), X4 is 1hPG-AUC, and X5 is 2hCP-AUC. The model has high sensitivity (78.57%) and selectivity (67.96%).

CONCLUSIONS: This model can be applied to people newly diagnosed with T2DM. When Y ≥0.0472, total autoantibody screening is recommended to assess LADA.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults, Predictive Value of Tests

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750