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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 1643-3750

Ultrasound Measurement of the Transverse Abdominis, Internal Oblique, and External Oblique Muscles Associated with Forward Head Posture and Reduced Cranio-Vertebral Angle

Kyung Woo Kang, Yong Hyun Kwon, Sung Min Son

Department of Physical Therapy, Yeungnam University College, Daegu, South Korea

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e928987

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.928987

Available online: 2021-04-01

Published: 2021-06-07


BACKGROUND: Abnormal posture can affect the alignment of the cervical spine, which can lead to various physical problems. There are many ways to solve the problem by limiting the area around the neck to restore abnormal neck condition. However, there is a need to look at these problems from an enlarged perspective through the relationship between the cervical spine and trunk. This study aimed to investigate the significance of the thickness of the transverse abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles in patients with forward head posture and reduced cranio-vertebral angle.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 24 healthy adult males in their 20s without lower back pain. The cranio-vertebral angle (CVA) in all the subjects was measured with the help of pictures taken in the sagittal plane using a digital camera. The thickness of muscles, including transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO), was measured using a diagnostic ultrasound device. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to identify the correlation between the variables measured.
RESULTS: CVA showed a statistically significant correlation with TrA thickness (r=0.506/p=0.012), and among the abdominal muscles, there was a significant correlation between IO and EO thickness (r=0.663/p=0.000).
CONCLUSIONS: A reduced CVA due to FHP was significantly associated with reduced TrA thickness. Therefore, increasing the bulk of the abdominal muscles with restoration of the abnormal CVA is a potential treatment approach and requires further study.

Keywords: Abdominal Muscles, Posture, Ultrasonography