Social Capital and Sleep Quality in Individuals Who Self-Isolated for 14 Days During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in January 2020 in China
Han Xiao, Yan Zhang, Desheng Kong, Shiyue Li, Ningxi Yang
Department of Respiration, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e923921
Available online: 2020-03-12
From the end of December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began to spread in central China. Social capital is a measure of social trust, belonging, and participation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of social capital on sleep quality and the mechanisms involved in people who self-isolated at home for 14 days in January 2020 during the COVID-19 epidemic in central China.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Individuals (n=170) who self-isolated at home for 14 days in central China, completed self-reported questionnaires on the third day of isolation. Individual social capital was assessed using the Personal Social Capital Scale 16 (PSCI-16) questionnaire. Anxiety was assessed using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) questionnaire, stress was assessed using the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction (SASR) questionnaire, and sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. Path analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between a dependent variable (social capital) and two or more independent variables, using Pearson’s correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM).
RESULTS: Low levels of social capital were associated with increased levels of anxiety and stress, but increased levels of social capital were positively associated with increased quality of sleep. Anxiety was associated with stress and reduced sleep quality, and the combination of anxiety and stress reduced the positive effects of social capital on sleep quality.
CONCLUSIONS: During a period of individual self-isolation during the COVID-19 virus epidemic in central China, increased social capital improved sleep quality by reducing anxiety and stress.
Keywords: Anxiety, Pneumonia, Sleep, Surgical Attire, COVID-19