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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 1643-3750

Comparison of Real-Time Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound to Quantify Flow in an In Vitro Model: A Feasibility Study

Si-Min Ruan, Qiao Zheng, Zhu Wang, Hang-Tong Hu, Li-Da Chen, Huan-Ling Guo, Xiao-Yan Xie, Ming-De Lu, Wei Li, Wei Wang

Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Ultrasonics Artificial Intelligence X-Lab, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (mainland)

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:10029-10035

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.919160

Available online:

Published: 2019-12-27


BACKGROUND: This feasibility study aimed to compare real-time two-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound (2D-CEUS) and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound (3D-CEUS) to quantify flow in an in vitro model.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes were used for the perfusion models and used SonoVue ultrasound contrast agent with a perfusion volume ratio of 1: 2: 4: 8: 16. The contrast was injected at a constant speed to compare the raw quantitative data of 2D-CEUS and 3D-CEUS at angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the peak intensity (PI) in the model were compared and the correlations between weighted PI and perfusion volume were analyzed.
RESULTS: In the three angles used, real-time 3D-CEUS resulted in a more comprehensive view of the spatial relationships in the perfusion model. Using real-time 2D-CEUS, the mean CV was 0.92±0.36, and the mean CV in the real-time 3D-CEUS model was significantly less at 0.48±0.32 (p<0.001). Quantitative 3D-CEUS parameters showed a good correlation with those of 2D-CEUS with an r-value of 0.93 (p=0.02). The r-value of weighted PI and the perfusion ratio using 2D-CEUS was 0.66 (p=0.23) compared with values in 3D-CEUS of 0.84 (p=0.08).
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of real-time 3D-CEUS and quantitative analysis identified the spatial distribution of the changes in angle in the model, which was less influenced by sectional planes, and was more representative of the perfusion volume when compared with 2D-CEUS. Quantitative real-time 3D-CEUS requires in vivo studies to evaluate the potential role in the clinical evaluation of vascular perfusion of malignant tumors.

Keywords: Contrast Media, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, in vitro, Ultrasonography