EXT1, Regulated by MiR-665, Promotes Cell Apoptosis via ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Na-wei Liu, Xin Huang, Shuang Liu, Yue Lu
State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:6491-6503
EXT1 is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident glycosyl transferase whose intracellular expression alters the biosynthesis and distribution of heparan sulfate. EXT1 is regarded as a classic tumor suppressor. MiR-665 can act as either an oncogene or tumor-suppressing gene in different tumors. The aim of the current study was to determine the function and molecular mechanisms of EXT1 and miR-665 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: EXT1 expression in ALL was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. The effects of EXT1 in ALL were explored by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8)/EdU assays, western blotting, flow cytometry, and in vivo tumorigenesis assays. Label-free quantification was used to detect differentially expressed proteins in EXT1-overexpressing Reh cells.
RESULTS: EXT1 expression is downregulated in ALL and negatively correlated with miR-665 expression. Moreover, low EXT1 and high miR-665 expression levels in adult ALL bone marrow tissues are correlated with poor patient survival. Our study showed that EXT1 modulates the proliferation and apoptosis of ALL cells in vitro and in vivo and that miR-665 promotes cell growth and inhibits apoptosis by suppressing EXT1. EXT1 promotes cell apoptosis via deactivating the ERK1/2 pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study is the first to confirm the association between low EXT1 levels and several clinical features of ALL. Low bone marrow EXT1 levels independently predict poor prognoses in adult ALL patients. Thus, our study suggests that EXT1- or miR-665-targeted strategies can confer the therapeutic effect of promoting apoptosis by deactivating the ERK1/2 pathway.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute, MAP Kinase Signaling System, MicroRNAs