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20 January 2020 : Clinical Research  

Khat Chewing Induces a Floral Shift in Dental Material-Associated Microbiota: A Preliminary Study

Mohammed M. Al Moaleem1AE*, Amit Porwal1EF, Nasser M. Al Ahmari2FG, Mansoor Shariff2EG, Husham Homeida3B, Asaad Khalid4CF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.918219

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e918219

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The habit of khat (Catha Edulis Forskal) chewing is widely practiced in the southern regions of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and East Africa. This social habit has tremendous effects on oral and general health of khat chewers. Khat may affect bacterial species in plaque biofilms on oral rehabilitation materials. This preliminary case-controlled study aimed to assess and compare the effect of khat chewing on bacterial biodiversity between non-khat chewers (NKC) and khat chewers (KC) in oral biofilms on oral rehabilitation materials using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty participants were organized into 2 equal groups of NKC and KC, each containing 5 subgroups related to filling material type. Some participants had amalgam (A) or composite (C) restorations, while others had feldspathic porcelain (FP), nickel chromium (NC), and zirconia ceramic (ZC) crowns or bridges. Oral biofilm samples were collected from all participants, DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR. Bacterial species were then identified and counted. PCR products were sequenced to detect similarity. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of the current study samples were compared with 16S rRNA gene sequences from GenBank using BLAST on the National Center for Biotechnology Information website.

RESULTS: The Streptococcus sp. was the most common bacterial species among our participants (40; 80%), followed by Lactobacillus and Veillonella spp., accounting for 12% (6) and 8% (4), respectively. Streptococcus sp. was observed equally among NKC and KC, but Lactobacillus and Veillonella spp. were higher in KC and NKC, respectively. Lactobacillus was associated mainly with prosthetic materials, and Streptococcus was found among all examined dental restorative materials.

CONCLUSIONS: This research concluded that khat chewing significantly affects bacterial biodiversity in oral biofilms in the presence of different restorative and prosthetic dental materials.

Keywords: Biofilms, Catha, Dental Materials, Bacteria, Mastication, Phylogeny

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750