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Effect of Smoking and Locations of Dental Implants on Peri-Implant Parameters: 3-Year Follow-Up

Emre Mumcu, Süleyman Çağatay Dayan

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:6104-6109

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.916613

Available online:

Published: 2019-08-15

BACKGROUND: Smoking may be a risk factor for marginal bone loss (MBL) and oral mucosal inflammation surrounding dental implants. This retrospective study evaluated the effects of smoking on dental implants in patients with fixed implant-supported prostheses over a period of 36 months following loading.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We assessed 120 patients (68 women, 52 men, ages 19-74 years (mean age: 55.10 years) with 315 implants. Implants were classified according to location in the upper and lower jaws and anterior (placed between canines) or posterior (placed between pre-molars and molars) as follows: 1=maxilla anterior, 2=maxilla posterior, 3=mandible anterior, 4=mandible posterior. We also measured MBL, plaque index (PI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and probing depth (PD). P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: MBL was statistically greater in smokers (P<0.001) as compared to non-smokers in both jaws. MBL did not vary significantly by location in either group (smokers: p=0.415; non-smokers: p=0.175). Mean PI and PD scores were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers (P<0.001). A positive correlation was found between PI and PD scores in both groups. No statistically significant difference in SBI was observed between the 2 groups (P>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was associated with increases in marginal bone loss around implants, independent of their location in the jaws. Also, both plaque indices and probing depths were greater in smokers than in non-smokers.

Keywords: Alveolar Bone Loss, Dental Implants, Smoking, Soft Tissue Infections