A Comparative Study of Bolus Norepinephrine, Phenylephrine, and Ephedrine for the Treatment of Maternal Hypotension in Parturients with Preeclampsia During Cesarean Delivery Under Spinal Anesthesia
Xian Wang, Mao Mao, Shijiang Liu, Shiqin Xu, Jianjun Yang
Department of Anesthesiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:1093-1101
This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of bolus norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and ephedrine in parturient with preeclampsia who had hypotension during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty-six parturient women with preeclampsia who had a baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) <80% during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section were divided into three treatment groups; bolus norepinephrine 4 μg (group N) (n=56), phenylephrine 50 μg (group P) (n=55), and ephedrine 4 mg (group E) (n=55). Primary outcomes included overall SBP and heart rate (HR) until delivery. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of tachycardia (HR >120 bpm), bradycardia (HR <60 bpm), hypertension (SBP >120% baseline), number of boluses of vasopressor required and episodes of hypotension, maternal side effects, and neonatal outcome.
RESULTS: Overall HR in group N was significantly increased compared with group P (80.5±12 vs. 76.6±6.9 bpm; P=0.04), and significantly lower compared with group E (80.5±12 vs. 84.9±7.1 bpm; P=0.02). Parturients in group N had fewer episodes of bradycardia compared with group P (3.6% vs. 21.8%; RR=0.26l; 95% CI, 0.07–0.73; P=0.004) and fewer episodes of tachycardia compared with group E (16.1% vs. 36.4%; RR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29–0.90; P=0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: A bolus dose of norepinephrine showed similar efficacy to phenylephrine but improved maternal and neonatal safety in parturients with preeclampsia with hypotension during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia.
Keywords: Ephedrine, Norepinephrine, Pre-Eclampsia, Treatment Outcome, Phenylephrine