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15 February 2019 : Animal Research  

Simvastatin Improves Cardiac Hypertrophy in Diabetic Rats by Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Induced by Calpain-1-Mediated Activation of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB)

QianQian Han12DE*, QianQian Liu1CF, Hui Zhang1CF, Meili Lu1BD, Hongxin Wang1BG, Futian Tang1AG, Yingjie Zhang2AD

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.913244

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:1232-1241

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, has been reported to exert multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the molecular mechanism remains to be examined. The present study was designed to study the effects of simvastatin on cardiac hypertrophy in diabetic rats and to explore its potential mechanism.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into a control (Con) group, a streptozotocin (STZ) group, and a STZ+simvastatin (STZ+SIM) group. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by using dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. The protein expressions of p65, IκBα, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), calpain-1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were examined by Western blot analysis. qPCR was used to detect the levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).

RESULTS: Simvastatin improved the cardiac hypertrophy of diabetic rats, as demonstrated by decreases in the ratios of left ventricular weight/body weight (LVW/BW) and heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) and by the downregulation of mRNA expression of BNP and ANP in the heart tissue. Simvastatin decreased the protein expressions of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, increased eNOS protein expression, and limited an increase in ROS levels in the heart tissue. Simvastatin increased IkBa protein expression in cytoplasm and inhibited the translocation of p65, the subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) to the nucleus from the cytoplasm of the heart tissue. Furthermore, simvastatin attenuated the activity of calpain and calpain-1 protein expression in heart tissue.

CONCLUSIONS: Simvastatin attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in diabetic rats, which might be due to the attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation induced by calpain-1-mediated activation of NF-κB.

Keywords: Calpain, Diabetic Cardiomyopathies, Oxidative Stress, Cardiomegaly, Diabetes Complications, Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha, NF-kappa B, Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III, Reactive Oxygen Species, Signal Transduction, simvastatin, Streptozocin, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750