[Retracted] Phillygenin Exerts In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Effects in Drug-Resistant Human Esophageal Cancer Cells by Inducing Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis, ROS Generation, and Inhibition of the Nuclear Factor kappa B NF-κB Signalling Pathway
Jiantao He, Wei Wei, Qingbo Yang, Yiling Wang
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:739-745
Available online: 2019-01-25
Retraction decision: 2021-03-23
Esophageal cancer causes considerable mortality and is ranked as the 6th most prevalent type of cancer across the world. At present, there is no effective esophageal cancer chemotherapy without adverse effects. Moreover, emergence of drug resistance among cancer is another obstacle in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Novel molecules of plant origin may prove beneficial in the development of chemotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. In this study we examined the anticancer effects of phillygenin against the vindesine-resistant esophageal cancer cell line SH-1-V1.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The proliferation rate of SH-1-V1 cells was determined by WST-1 assay. Apoptosis was confirmed by propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cell cycle analysis, ROS, and MMP determination were performed by flow cytometery. Protein expression was assessed by Western blot analysis.
RESULTS: We found that phillygenin inhibited the growth of SH-1-V1 cells and exhibited an IC50 of 6 µM. Investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that phillygenin triggered apoptotic cell death of the SH-1-V1 cells, which was also associated with enhancement of Bax expression and decreased expression of Bcl-2. Moreover, the expression of cleaved caspase 3 and 9 also increased upon phillygenin treatment. Phillygenin also caused a significant increase in ROS production, concomitant with decreased MMP levels. Phillygenin also caused arrest of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. In vivo evaluation of phillygenin revealed that it can inhibit tumor weight and volume, suggesting the anticancer potential of phillygenin.
CONCLUSIONS: In brief, phillygenin inhibited in vitro and in vivo cancer cell growth in drug-resistant human esophageal cancer cells, and these effects were mediated via apoptosis, ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, and activation of the NF-kB signalling pathway.
Keywords: Retracted Publication