Median Effective Dose of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine for Transthoracic Echocardiography in Children with Kawasaki Disease Who Have a History of Repeated Sedation
Hong-Bin Gu, Yun-An Song, Jie Bai
Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:381-388
Available online: 2019-01-13
The aim of this study was to investigate the median effective dose (ED50) of intranasal dexmedetomidine for echocardiography in children with Kawasaki disease who had a history of repeated sedation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 73 pediatric Kawasaki disease patients aged 1 to 36 months enrolled in this study who had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I–II, were scheduled to undergo echocardiography under sedation. They were assigned to 2 groups (group A: age 1–18 months, and group B: age 19–36 months). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was administered before echocardiography. The dose of intranasal dexmedetomidine was determined with the up-down sequential allocation, and the initial dose was 2 μg/kg with an increment/decrement of 0.2 μg/kg. The ED50 of intranasal dexmedetomidine for sedation was determined with the up-and-down method of Dixon and Massey and probit regression. The time to effective sedation, time to regaining consciousness, vital signs, oxygen saturation, echocardiographic examination time, clinical side-effects, and characteristics of regaining consciousness were recorded and compared.
RESULTS: The ED50 of intranasal dexmedetomidine for sedation was 2.184 μg/kg (95% CI, 1.587–2.785) in group A and 2.313 μg/kg (95% CI, 1.799–3.426) in group B. There were no significant differences in the time to sedation and time to regaining consciousness between groups. Additionally, change in hemodynamic and hypoxemia were not noted in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The ED50 of intranasal dexmedetomidine was determined in children with Kawasaki disease who had a history of repeated sedation to be appropriate for repeated-routine sedation of echocardiographic examination in pediatric patients. The ED50 of intranasal dexmedetomidine for echocardiography in this circumstance is similar to that in children receiving initial sedation.
Keywords: Administration, Intranasal, Hospitals, Pediatric