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13 November 2018 : Laboratory Research  

Expression and Molecular Regulation of the Cox2 Gene in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Antiproliferation of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Feng Gao1BCD*, Mohammad Ishraq Zafar1EF, Stefan Jüttner23AD, Michael Höcker24AB, Bertram Wiedenmann2AG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.912419

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR8125-8140

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) has had a significant increase over the past 4 decades. The pathophysiological role of the cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) gene and factors responsible for the expression in GEP-NETs is of clinical value. Current study determined the expression of cox-2 gene in human GEP-NET tissues and corresponding cell lines, investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cox-2 gene expression and assessed the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on both anchorage-dependent and independent growth of GEP-NET cells.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: GEP-NET tissues and QGP-1, BON, and LCC-18 GEP-NET cell lines were used. The expression of cox-2 gene was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, western blot, RT-PCR, and enzyme immunoassay. Transient transfection and luciferase assays along with electrophoretic mobility shift assays were conducted to explore the regulation of cox-2 gene expression. The effect of COX-inhibitors on GEP-NET cell growth was determined by proliferation assays and colony growth assessment.

RESULTS: We found 87.8% of GEP-NET tissues stained positive for COX-2. QGP-1 and LCC-18 cells expressed cox-2 gene. PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) amounts quantified in the supernatants of NET cells matched to cox-2 expression level. The CRE-E-box element (–56 to –48 bp) and binding of USF1, USF2, and CREB transcription factors to this proximal promoter element were essential for cox-2 promoter activity in GEP-NET cells. COX-2-specific inhibitor NS-398 potently and dose-dependently inhibited PGE2 release from QGP-1 cells. Interestingly, both NS-398 and acetylic salicylic acid effectively suppressed proliferation of QGP-1 and BON cells in a dose-dependent manner.

CONCLUSIONS: The majority of GEP-NETs over express cox-2 gene. The binding of CREB and USF-1/-2 transcription factors to a proximal, overlapping CRE-Ebox element is the underlying mechanism for cox-2 gene expression. NSAIDs potently suppressed the proliferations and may offer a novel approach for chemoprevention and therapy of GEP-NETs.

Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal, Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors, neuroendocrine tumors

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750