Sinomenine Regulates Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress via Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) and NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) Signaling Pathways in Ankle Fractures in Children
Jie Shen, Rong Yao, Mei Jing, Zhiyu Zhou
(Department of Orthopedics, Children’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China (mainland))
Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:6649-6655
This study aimed to investigate the effects of SIN on ankle fracture and the underlying mechanisms in MG-63 cells.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: qRT-PCR and ELISA assay were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of cytokines in peripheral blood of children with or without ankle fracture. The expression and activity of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were detected by ELISA assay. Pretreated MG-63 cells with/without SIN were stimulated with 1 μg/ml bradykinin (BK). A CCK-8 kit was used to detect the cell viability. The cytokines produced from MG-63 cells were detected by Western blotting and qRT-PCR. Moreover, Western blotting was used to detect the levels of p-p38 and p-NF-κB (p65), and the activation level of the Nrf2 signaling pathway was examined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that compared with the healthy children, the mRNA and protein levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were significantly upregulated in children with ankle fracture. In addition, the expression and activity of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were imbalanced in children with ankle fracture. SIN treatment did not have a cytotoxic effect on MG-63 cells. SIN dose-dependently suppressed BK-induced upregulation of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, p-p38, and p-NF-κB (p65). Furthermore, SIN dramatically inhibited oxidative stress induced by BK via balancing the expression and activity of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes and inhibited the activation of Nrf2 signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: SIN might be a potential agent for the treatment of ankle fracture through reducing inflammatory response and oxidative stress.
Keywords: ankle fractures, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Sinomenium