Scimago Lab
powered by Scopus
call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon-Fri 10 am - 2 pm EST


Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 1643-3750

Girinimbine Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells In Vitro via the Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways

Qiu Xin, An Muer

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Huashan Hospital North, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (mainland)

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR5480-5487

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.910137

Available online:

Published: 2018-08-07


BACKGROUND: Worldwide, ovarian cancer is increasing in prevalence and has a high mortality rate. Girinimbine is a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Murraya koenigii (the curry tree) and is used in Chinese herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of girinimbine on cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A human ovarian cancer cell line panel, which included SKOV3 cells and the SV40 immortalized normal human ovarian cell line, were treated with increasing doses of girinimbine. Cell proliferation was evaluated using the MTT assay. Confocal immunofluorescence using 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), Annexin-V, and propidium iodide (PI) were used to measure cell apoptosis. Cell migration and invasion were determined by transwell assays. Protein expression was determined by Western blot.
RESULTS: Girinimbine inhibited SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of grinimbine was 15 µM for the SKOV3 cells, and 120 µM for the SV40 cells. Grinimbine treatment resulted in apoptosis of SKOV3 cells, from 2.2% in untreated cells to 58.8% at a dose of 30 µM, which was associated with an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Girinimbine inhibited cell migration and invasion of the SKOV3 cancer cells in vitro and inhibited the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid used in Chinese herbal medicine, inhibited the proliferation and cell migration of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner, via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

Keywords: Cell Migration Inhibition