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Endotoxin Contributes to Artificial Loosening of Prostheses Induced by Titanium Particles

Guihua Wang, Pin Zhang, Jianning Zhao

Jinling Clinical Medical College, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China (mainland)

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:7001-7006

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.910039

Available online:

Published: 2018-10-02

BACKGROUND: Aseptic loosening of orthopedic implants caused by wear particles is a major cause of joint replacement failure. However, the mechanism of aseptic loosening has not yet been defined. The present study explored whether endotoxin adherent on the titanium (Ti) particles contributes to aseptic loosening.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Limulus amebocyte lysate detection was conducted to detect the levels of endotoxin adhered to the Ti particles. A mouse air pouches model was established and mice were divided into 4 groups and injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or Ti particles suspensions (0.1, 1, 10 mg/mL), following detection of the number of macrophages and the level of endotoxin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the microstructures of Ti particles adhered with endotoxin.
RESULTS: In vitro experiments showed that the level of endotoxin adhered to the Ti particles was significantly increased after adding LPS back to these “endotoxin-free” particles. In vivo experiments showed that Ti particles injection significantly increased the number of macrophages and the level of endotoxin.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, these results suggest that adherent endotoxin may play an important role in aseptic loosening induced by Ti particles.

Keywords: Endotoxins, Macrophages, Titanium