Cardiovascular Risk and Neurocognitive Assessment in Young Adults and Their Relationship to Body Adiposity
Syed Shahid Habib, Shahid Bashir, Muhammad Iqbal, Ghada Maher Abdelaziz, Rawan Alyahya, Ghadeer Khaled Alzahrani, Sarah I. Alangari, Noura Abdulmunim Alrayes, Dahna Sultan Alkahtani, Miguel Alonso-Alonso
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:7929-7935
We assessed body composition, adiposity, cardiovascular risk, and cognitive functions in healthy young adult females and investigated the possible correlation between neurocognitive decline, adiposity, and cardiovascular risk markers.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 83 healthy, young adult, Saudi women (age 19–23 years). Subjects were classified into group (A) with 19 non-obese subjects and negative family history (FH) of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), group (B) with 38 non-obese subjects with a positive FH of CVD, and group (C) with 18 obese subjects with positive FH of CVD. Body composition was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Cognitive functions were evaluated using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB). The blood samples were tested for lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and high-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP).
RESULTS: There was significantly prolonged Attention-Switching Task (AST) latency in obese subjects with negative family history of CVD (p=0.014) and those with positive family history of CVD (p=0.026) compared to controls, but the difference in AST Percent Correct Trials, Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED) Total Errors, and Simple Reaction Time (SRT) was not significant. Simple response time had a weak but significant inverse correlation with BMI (r=–0.227, p<0.05). BMI was correlated positively with Lp(a) and hs-CRP, while BF% was correlated with hs-CRP only. No correlation was observed between the CANTAB tests, Lp(a), and hs-CRP.
CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular risk increases with higher adiposity and the presence of a positive family history of cardiovascular disease. Neurocognitive function may decline with higher adiposity; however, no relationship was observed between neurocognitive functions and cardiovascular risk markers.
Keywords: Apoprotein(a), C-Reactive Protein, Cardiology, Obesity