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08 May 2018 : Laboratory Research  

Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII) Increases Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Current in Patients with Chronic Atrial Fibrillation

Xuehui FanBD, Yiyan YuBC, Huan LanBC, Xianhong OuBD, Lijie YangBF, Tao LiBC, Jiming CaoEF, Xiaorong ZengEF, Miaoling LiAEG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.909684

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR3011-3023

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Increased small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current (SK), abnormal intracellular Ca2+ handling, and enhanced expression and activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) have been found in clinical and/or experimental models of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the cumulative effect of these phenomena and their mechanisms in AF are still unclear. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that CaMKII increases SK current in human chronic AF.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Right atrial appendage tissues from patients with either sinus rhythm (SR) or AF and neonatal rat atrial myocytes were used. Patch clamp, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting techniques were used to perform the study.

RESULTS: Compared to SR, the apamin-sensitive SK current (IKAS) was significantly increased, but the mRNA and protein levels of SK1, SK2, and SK3 were significantly decreased. In AF, the steady-state Ca2+ response curve of IKAS was shifted leftward and the [Ca2+]i level was significantly increased. CaMKII inhibitors (KN-93 or autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide (AIP)) reduced the IKAS in both AF and SR. The inhibitory effect of KN-93 or AIP on IKAS was greater in AF than in SR. The expression levels of calmodulin, CaMKII, and autophosphorylated CaMKII at Thr287 (but not at Thr286) were significantly increased in AF. Furthermore, KN-93 inhibited the expression of (Thr287)p-CaMKII and SK2 in neonatal rat atrial myocytes.

CONCLUSIONS: SK current is increased via the enhanced activation of CaMKII in patients with AF. This finding may explain the difference between SK current and channels expression in AF, and thus may provide a therapeutic target for AF.

Keywords: Atrial Fibrillation, Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2, Phosphorylation, Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750