MicroRNA-365 Inhibits Cell Growth and Promotes Apoptosis in Melanoma by Targeting BCL2 and Cyclin D1 (CCND1)
Yong Zhu, Xing Wen, Peng Zhao
Department of Stomatology, Xi’an Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR3679-3692
Available online: 2018-06-02
MicroRNA-365 (miR-365) is involved in the development of a variety of cancers. However, it remains largely unknown if and how miRNAs-365 plays a role in melanoma development.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, we overexpressed miR-365 in melanoma cell lines A375 and A2058, via transfection of miR-365 mimics oligos. We then investigated alterations in a series of cancer-related phenotypes, including cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, colony formation, and migration and invasion capacities. We also validated cyclin D1 (CCND1) and BCL2 apoptosis regulator (BCL2) as direct target genes of miR-365 by luciferase reporter assay and investigated their roles in miR-365 caused phenotypic changes. To get a more general view of miR-365’s biological functions, candidate target genes of miR-365 were retrieved via searching online databases, which were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses for potential biological functions. We then analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Skin Cutaneous Melanoma (SKCM) dataset for correlation between miR-365 level and clinicopathological features of patients, and for survival of patients with high and low miR-365 levels.
RESULTS: We found that miR-365 was downregulated in melanoma cells. Overexpression of miR-365 remarkably suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and compromised the migration and invasion capacities in A375 and A2058 cell lines. We also found that the phenotypic alterations by miR-365 were partially due to downregulation of CCND1 and BCL2 oncogenes. The bioinformatics analysis revealed that predicted targets of miR-365 were widely involved in transcriptional regulation and cancer-related signaling pathways. However, analysis of SKCM dataset failed to find differences in miR-365 level among melanoma patients at different clinicopathologic stages. The Kaplan-Meier analysis also failed to discover signiﬁcant differences in overall survival and disease-free survival between patients with high and low miR-365 levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that miR-365 might be an important novel regulator for melanoma formation and development, however, the in vivo roles in melanoma developments need further investigation.
Keywords: bcl-Associated Death Protein, Cyclin D1