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02 April 2018 : Laboratory Research  

17β-Estradiol on the Expression of G-Protein Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER/GPR30) Mitophagy, and the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in ATDC5 Chondrocytes In Vitro

Dong-xiao Fan12BC, Xu-hao Yang1D, Yi-nan Li1D, Lei Guo1A

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.909365

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR1936-1947

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a progressive inflammatory joint disease resulting in damage to articular cartilage. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) activates cell signaling in response to 17β-estradiol, which can be blocked by the GPR30 agonist, G15, an analog of G-1. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol on the expression of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) on mitophagy and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in ATDC5 chondrocytes in vitro.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cultured ATDC5 chondrocytes were treated with increasing concentrations of 17β-estradiol with and without G15, p38 inhibitor (SB203580), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), PI3K inhibitor (LY294002, S1737), and mTOR inhibitor (S1842). Expression of GPER/GPR30 and components of the PI3K/Akt pathway in cultured ATDC5 chondrocytes were detected by immunofluorescence (IF) staining, Western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and IF were used to detect mitophagosomes. Expression of LC-3, LAMP2, TOM20, Hsp60, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-p38, and p-JNK was investigated by Western blot. Proliferation and viability of the ATDC5 chondrocytes were determined using BrdU and MTT assays.

RESULTS: In 17β-estradiol-treated ATDC5 chondrocytes, increased expression of GPER/GPR30 was found, but fewer mitophagosomes were observed, and decreased numbers of TOM20-positive granules were co-localized with decreased LAMP2 and increased expression levels of TOM20, Hsp60, p-Akt, and p-mTOR, and reduced expression of LC3-II, were found. In 17β-estradiol-treated ATDC5 chondrocytes, the proliferation and viability of the 17β-estradiol-treated ATDC5 chondrocytes were significantly elevated.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with 17β-estradiol protected ATDC5 chondrocytes against mitophagy via the GPER/GPR30 and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

Keywords: Chondrocytes, Estradiol, Mitochondrial Degradation

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750