The Effects of Ludartin on Cell Proliferation, Cell Migration, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Are Associated with Upregulation of p21WAF1 in Saos-2 Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro
Shuang-li Zhang, Bao-lin Li, Wei Li, Ming Lu, Lin-ying Ni, Hui-li Ma, Qing-gang Meng
(Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China (mainland))
Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:4926-4933
The aim of this study was investigate the effects of the sesquiterpene lactone, ludartin, on cell proliferation, cell migration, apoptosis, and the cell cycle in osteosarcoma cell lines, compared with a normal osteoblast cell line.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Osteosarcoma cell lines, MG-63 Saos-2 U-2OS, T1-73 143B, and HOS, and normal hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts, were cultured and treated with increasing doses of ludartin, The MTT colorimetric assay was used to measure cell metabolic activity and viability. Apoptosis was studied by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) nuclear staining and Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cell cycle was studied using flow cytometry. Cell migration and invasion were studied using wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Protein expression was measured by Western blotting.
RESULTS: Ludartin inhibited cell viability, cell migration, cell proliferation, and increased cell apoptosis, in all osteosarcoma cell lines, with an IC50 dose ranging from 15–30 µM. The greatest effects were on the Saso-2 osteosarcoma cells, with an IC50 of 15 µM. However, ludartin showed minor cytotoxic effects of the normal hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts (IC50 >100 µM). Ludartin exerted its anti-proliferative effects on Saos-2 cells via induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M checkpoint, associated with reduced expression of Cdc25c (Ser216), Cdc25c, pCdc2 (Tyr15), and Cdc2 and increased expression of p21WAF1. Ludartin inhibited cell migration and invasion of the Saos-2 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The dose-dependent effects of ludartin on cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M checkpoint involved p21WAFI in Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Cell Cycle, Cell Migration Assays, Osteosarcoma