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10 August 2018 : Clinical Research

Success Rate of Fungal Peri-Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated by 2-Stage Revision and Potential Risk Factors of Treatment Failure: A Retrospective Study

Zhisen Gao1ABCDEFG, Xiang Li1ACDEFG, Yinqiao Du1BC, Yawen Peng1BC, Wenming Wu1CD, Yonggang Zhou1ACG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.909168

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: CLR5549-5557

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the success rate of fungal peri-prosthetic joint infection treated by 2-stage revision and related factors of treatment failure to offer a better treatment protocol.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed 18 joints (13 knees and 5 hips) of 17 patients (10 women and 7 men) diagnosed with fungal peri-prosthetic joint infection from January 2000 to June 2015 at our institute. The mean follow-up was 65.1 months (range, 25–129 months). All joints were treated with complete debridement, implantation of antifungal-loaded cement spacers, at least 6 weeks of parenteral antifungal agents, and delayed reimplantation.

RESULTS: Notably, 15 joints were infected with Candida, and molds were isolated in 3 joints. The median duration of resection arthroplasty and reimplantation was 33.9 weeks (range, 12–132 weeks). Thirteen (10 knees and 3 hips, 72.2%) of the 18 joints (13 knees and 5 hips) had no recurrent or persistent infection, while the remaining 5 joints (3 knees and 2 hips, 27.8%) failed to control infection after reimplantation of prosthesis or spacer. The long interval between prosthesis resection and reimplantation (69 weeks vs. 23.1 weeks, p=0.240) and mixed bacterial infection (80% vs. 46.2%, p=0.314) were associated with higher failure rate.

CONCLUSIONS: Debridement with the retention of the prosthesis is not an ideal treatment protocol for fungal peri-prosthetic joint infection; thus, a two-stage revision could be valid. We suggest that 6 weeks of parenteral antifungal agents are necessary, and 6 subsequent weeks of oral antifungal treatment is also important. We do not recommend that the two-stage revision be performed on patients who have more than 2 host risk factors.

Keywords: Arthroplasty, Candida, Joints, Risk Factors

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750