The Value of Combining Plasma D-Dimer and Endothelin-1 Levels to Predict No-Reflow After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of ST-Segment Elevation in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients with a Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus History
Ronghua Gao, Jianjun Wang, Shaohui Zhang, Guoliang Yang, Zhencai Gao, Xueying Chen
Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: CLR3549-3556
Available online: 2018-05-28
No-reflow phenomenon is a well-known problem, often accompanying percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEAMI). This study investigated the value of plasma D-dimer and Endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels on admission in predicting no-reflow after primary PCI and long-term prognosis in STEAMI patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 822 patients with STEAMI and T2DM undergoing successful primary PCI included in this study: 418 patients showed normal re-flow after PCI, while 404 patients showed no-reflow phenomenon after PCI. The predictive value of plasma ET-1 and D-dimer level, and other clinical parameters for the no-reflow phenomenon were analyzed.
RESULTS: The high plasma ET-1 and D-dimer levels showed predictive value for the no-reflow phenomenon in STEAMI patients with T2DM. Patients with high D-dimer and ET-1 levels showed higher risk (4.212, with 95%CI of 2.973–5.967 and 2.447 with 95%CI of 1.723–3.476, respectively) of no-reflow phenomenon compared with patients with low plasma D-dimer and ET-1 levels. Sensitivity of high plasma ET-1 and D-dimer levels in predicting no-reflow was 0.766. Both plasma D-dimer and ET-1 were adverse prognosticators for STEAMI patients with a T2DM post PCI (P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, plasma D-dimer and ET-1 levels on admission independently predict no-reflow after PCI in STEAMI patients with T2DM. When combined, the D-dimer and ET-1 levels as predictive and prognostic values are clinically promising. The plasma D-dimer and ET-1 levels provided a novel marker for treatment selection for the STEAIM patients with a T2DM history.
Keywords: acute coronary syndrome, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Endothelin-1, no-reflow phenomenon, percutaneous coronary intervention