Intravenous Immunoglobulin Gamma (IVIG) versus IVIG Plus Infliximab in Young Children with Kawasaki Disease
Chun-Ling Han, Suo-Lin Zhao
(Maternity and Child Care Centre of Baoji, Baoji, Shaanxi, China (mainland))
Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:7264-7270
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a serious disease characterized by systemic lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, as well as lymphomas and vascular inflammation. KD threatens the health and lives of children, especially young ones. Here, we compared the therapeutic effects of single intravenous immunoglobulin gamma (IVIG) vs. a combination of IVIG and infliximab in young children with Kawasaki disease (KD).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 154 children with KD, younger than 5 years old, were enrolled in the study from January 2013 to January 2017. The patients were randomly divided into an IVIG group and a combination of IVIG and infliximab treatment group. After systematic treatments, the therapeutic indicators of the 2 groups were compared. During the treatment process, body temperature and other important inflammatory indicators, including C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), were monitored in the first 4 days.
RESULTS: There were fewer refractory KD patients in the combined treatment group than in the IVIG group (4 vs. 14, p<0.001). KD patients in the combined treatment group had better outcomes with shorter fever durations and hospital stays, as well as less coronary artery dilation. However, there was no obvious differences in the incidence rate of coronary artery aneurysms between the 2 groups (p>0.05). Costs of administration were similar between groups (p>0.05). Body temperature, CRP, WBC, and TNF-α in the combined therapy group all showed an earlier drop than in the IVIG group, indicating a more effective anti-inflammation effect.
CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of IVIG combined with infliximab in the treatment of young children with KD has more advantages than single IVIG therapy and can be considered as a preferred treatment for KD. However, it would be necessary to further investigate whether there is a significant difference in aneurysm frequency and long-term outcome between these 2 strategies among a larger number of patients.
Keywords: Antibodies, Monoclonal, Immunoglobulins, Intravenous, Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome