Activation of Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Is Associated with Human Osteosarcoma Cells Radioresistance Characterized by Increased Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion
Wei Qu, Dichen Li, Yufei Wang, Qining Wu, Dingjun Hao
Department of Spine Surgery, Honghui Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:3764-3771
Radioresistance restricts the application of radiotherapy in human osteosarcoma (OS). This study investigated the molecular mechanism of radioresistance in OS, which may provide clues to finding ideal targets for genetic therapy.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The human OS cell line MG63 was employed as parent cells. After repeat low-dose X-ray irradiation of MG63, the radioresistant OS cell line MG63R was produced. Colony formation assay was used to assess the radioresistance. Cell viability was evaluated by CCK-8 assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis, and wound healing assay was used to evaluate invasive capacity. The nuclear translocation was evaluated by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Protein expression levels were assessed by Western blotting. Specific siRNA against Shh was used to silence Shh.
RESULTS: More survival colony formation, elevated cell viability, less cell apoptosis, and increased wound closure were found in MG63R than in MG63 cells exposed to irradiation. The nuclear translocation of Gli, expression levels of Shh, Smo, Ptch1, Bcl2, active MMP2, and active MMP9 were increased in MG63R cells compared with MG63 cells. Transfection of Shh-siRNA suppressed expression levels of Shh, Smo, Ptch1, Bcl2, active MMP2, and active MMP9, as well as the nuclear translocation of Gli in MG63R cells. The cell viability, survival colony formation, and wound closure were impaired, whereas cell apoptosis was increased, in siRNA-transfected MG63R cells than in control MG63R cells exposed to irradiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Activation of Shh signaling was involved in radioresistance of OS cells. Blocking this signaling can impair the radioresistance capacity of OS cells.
Keywords: Hedgehog Proteins, Osteosarcoma, Radiotherapy, Adjuvant