Emodin, A Chinese Herbal Medicine, Inhibits Reoxygenation-Induced Injury in Cultured Human Aortic Endothelial Cells by Regulating the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Signaling Pathway
Xiaoling Shou, Rongfang Zhou, Liyue Zhu, Aihua Ren, Lei Wang, Yan Wang, Jianmei Zhou, Xinwen Liu, Bozhong Wang
Department of Cardiac Rehabilitation, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR643-651
Available online: 2018-02-01
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with vascular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of emodin, a Chinese herbal medicine, in hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and its effects on the expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: An in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation model used cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). A colorimetric method evaluated the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Phosphorylation of PPAR-γ and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were measured by Western blotting. Expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. Nitric oxide (NO) production was detected by diaminofluorescein-FM diacetate (DAF-FM DA) fluorescence. Immunoprecipitation was used to evaluate the molecular coupling of heat shock protein (HSP)90 and eNOS.
RESULTS: Hypoxia-reoxygenation injury of HAECs reduced the activity and phosphorylation of PPAR-γ, and eNOS, NO production, and HSP90/eNOS molecular coupling in a time-dependent manner. Hypoxia-reoxygenation increased the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in a time-dependent manner. Emodin treatment recovered PPAR-γ activity and phosphorylation, eNOS phosphorylation, and HSP90/eNOS coupling in HAECS in a concentration-dependent manner, which was reversed by the PPAR-γ inhibitor GW9662, and the eNOS inhibitor, L-NAME. The recovery of HSP90/eNOS coupling by emodin was impaired by GW9662 treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: An in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation (ischemia-reperfusion injury) model of induction of endothelial cell inflammatory mediators showed that emodin recovered the PPAR-γ and eNOS pathway activity.
Keywords: Emodin, endothelial cells, PPAR gamma