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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 1643-3750

Prognostic Risk Factors in Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

Ziyaattin Karakuzu, Remzi Iscimen, Halis Akalin, Nermin Kelebek Girgin, Ferda Kahveci, Melda Sinirtas

Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Uludag University, School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: CLR1321-1328

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.905919

Available online: 2018-03-05

Published: 2018-03-05


BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection commonly seen in patients in intensive care units (ICU). This study aimed to analyze factors affecting prognosis of patients diagnosed with VAP.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Critically ill patients with VAP were retrospectively evaluated between June 2002 and June 2011 in the ICU. VAP diagnosis was made according to 2005 ATS/IDSA (Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society) criteria. First pneumonia attacks of patients were analyzed.
RESULTS: When early- and late-onset pneumonia causes were compared according to ICU and hospital admittance, resistant bacteria were found to be more common in pneumonias classified as early-onset according to ICU admittance. APACHE II score of >21 (p=0.016), SOFA score of >6 (p<0.001) on admission to ICU and SOFA score of >6 (p<0.001) on day of diagnosis are risk factors affecting mortality. Additionally, low PaO2/FIO2 ratio at onset of VAP had a negative effect on prognosis (p<0.001). SOFA score of >6 on the day of VAP diagnosis was an independent risk factor for mortality [(p<0.001; OR (95%CI): 1.4 (1.2–1.6)].
CONCLUSIONS: Resistant bacteria might be present in early-onset VAP. Especially, taking LOS into consideration may better estimate the presence of resistant bacteria. Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were the most frequent causative microorganisms for VAP. SOFA score might be more valuable than APACHE II score. Frequently surveilling SOFA scores may improve predictive performance over time.

Keywords: Mortality, Organ Dysfunction Scores, Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated, Risk Factors